All posts by middeen

The Jim Crow Timeline 1870 to 1875

This is a chronicle of the timeline of denial of access and inhumane treatment that African-American/Blacks had to endure in these United States of America. In spite of monumental barriers, dehumanizing acts of terror and gross  injustices committed against African-American/Blacks, we are still STANDING. When the “Most High” is with you, survival is a foregone conclusion…

1870
Virginia Prohibits School Desegregation
A Virginia law prohibits black and white children from attending the same schools. The measure will be renewed in 1882, 1902, 1930, 1956, and 1958.
1870
Tennessee Restricts Schools
A Tennessee law prohibits black and white children from attending the same schools. The measure will be renewed in 1873, 1901, 1925, and 1932.
1872
West Virginia Constitution Restricts Schools
The West Virginia Constitution is amended to state, “White and colored persons shall not be taught in the same school.”3 In 1873, 1901, and 1931, the state legislature will create laws to enforce the constitutional mandate. Continue reading The Jim Crow Timeline 1870 to 1875

The Jim Crow Timeline 1876 to 1878

1876
Wyoming Separates Schools
Wyoming’s territorial legislature votes to create separate schools for the instruction of black children.
1876
Texas Poll Tax
The Texas Constitution requires voters to pay a poll tax; a free required in order to cast a ballot. Though the measure does not appear to discriminate against any particular race, it will effectively disenfranchise black Texans, who cannot afford the fee.
1876
Mississippi Pig Law
The Mississippi legislature—the first since Radical Reconstruction to be controlled by Democrats—votes to increase penalties for petty crimes. Under the so-called “pig law,” anyone found guilty of stealing a farm animal or any other piece of property worth more than $10 will be charged with grand larceny and sentenced to up to five years in prison. Continue reading The Jim Crow Timeline 1876 to 1878

The Jim Crow Timeline 1879 to 1885

1879
Missouri Restricts Marriage
A Missouri law states, “No person having one-eighth part or more of Negro blood shall be permitted to marry any white person.” 5 The statute will be renewed in 1909, 1929, and 1949.
1879
South Carolina Restricts Marriage
A South Carolina law states, “Marriage between a white person and an Indian, Negro, mulatto, mestizo, or half-breed shall be null and void.” In 1895, the legislature will amend the state constitution to reflect this statute.
1879
Washington Teachers
Booker T. Washington returns to his alma mater, the Hampton Institute, in order to teach and mentor students.
1880
Mississippi Voids Mixed Marriage
The Mississippi legislature revises the state code to declare that any marriage between a white person and an African-American is “incestuous and void.” Continue reading The Jim Crow Timeline 1879 to 1885

The Jim Crow Timeline 1888 to 1899

1888
Utah Restricts Marriage
Utah enacts a miscegenation law that prohibits any white person from marrying someone of another race. The statute will be renewed in 1907, 1933, and 1953.
1888
Du Bois At Harvard
W. E. B. Du Bois completes his coursework at Fisk College, graduating at top of his class. With the aid of generous scholarships, he is able to continue his education at Harvard University. During his seven-year stint at the prestigious institution, Du Bois will earn a B.A. in Philosophy and an M.A. in History and will become the university’s first African-American student to receive a Ph.D.
1889
Texas Restricts Transportation
The Texas legislature repeals the 1871 statute that barred segregation on public transportation. Railroad companies are now required to maintain separate coaches for black passengers.

1890
Lynchings
During the 1890s, at least 1,132 blacks are lynched or burned alive in the United States.7
1890
Voting Laws
Between 1890 and 1906, every southern state passes some sort of statute meant to prevent blacks from registering to vote. Most new elector requirements, such as the poll tax, literacy tests, and the “grandfather clause,” appear colorblind, but in practice, function to eliminate the black vote altogether.
1890
Louisiana Restricts Railroads
A Louisiana law requires railroad companies to provide separate but equal accommodations for black passengers. Continue reading The Jim Crow Timeline 1888 to 1899

The Jim Crow Timeline 1895 to 1900

1895
Georgia Restricts Schools
Georgia bars black and white children from attending the same schools. Any teacher who instructs black and white students in the same classroom forfeits all pay. The law and the penalties associated with it will be renewed in 1926, 1933, and 1945.
1895
South Carolina Constitution Amended
The South Carolina Constitution is amended to read, “Separate schools shall be provided for children of the white and colored races, and no child of either race shall ever be permitted to attend a school for children of the other race.” In addition, Article 6 of Section 6 is rewritten to assert that each county in which a lynching occurs may be subject to a fine of $2,000 per death. Such a measure reveals that this type of murder is common throughout the state. Similar laws will be passed in 1908 and again in 1932.8
1895
Du Bois Harvard Ph.D.
W. E. B. Du Bois receives a Ph.D. in History from Harvard University. He is the first African-American student to earn this degree from the prestigious institution. In the following year, Dr. Du Bois will publish his doctoral dissertation, “The Suppression of the African Slave Trade. Continue reading The Jim Crow Timeline 1895 to 1900

The Jim Crow Timeline 1901 to 1905

1901
North Carolina Restricts Libraries
A North Carolina law requires state librarians to maintain separate facilities for the use of black patrons.
1901
Alabama Restricts Marriage
The Alabama Constitution is amended to block the passage of any law authorizing or legalizing interracial marriage.

Feb 1901
Up From Slavery
Booker T. Washington publishes Up From Slavery, his best-selling autobiography.
Jul 16, 1901
Washington Meets Roosevelt
Booker T. Washington dines with President Theodore Roosevelt at the White House. Washington takes the opportunity to consult the President about several of his political appointments in the South.
1902
Virginia Constitution Restricts Schools
The Virginia constitution is amended to mandate school segregation. Continue reading The Jim Crow Timeline 1901 to 1905

The Jim Crow Timeline 1907 to 1908

1907
Oklahoma Constitution Requires School Oversight
The Oklahoma Constitution is amended to require the state legislature to oversee the creation of separate schools for “colored children.” The term “colored,” the amendment states, “shall be construed to mean children of African descent who possess any quantum of negro blood, and the term ‘white’ shall include all other persons.”11
1907
Texas Restricts Street Cars
A Texas law requires streetcar companies to designate separate seating areas for black riders. A passenger refusing to sit in the appropriate area must pay a fine of up to $25. That is $622.34 in 2017 dollars.
1907
Florida Restricts Railroads
Florida railroad companies must provide separate waiting rooms and ticket windows for black patrons at all stations. In addition, railway cars must be clearly marked “For White” or “For Colored.” Those companies that refuse to comply may be fined up to $5,000.
1908
Louisiana Increases Penalties
The Louisiana legislature revises an anti-miscegenation law first passed in 1894. The new penalty for interracial marriage is imprisonment for up to one year with hard labor. The statute will be renewed in 1910, 1932, 1951, and 1952. The legislature also votes to bar whites and blacks from buying or consuming alcohol on the same premises. Continue reading The Jim Crow Timeline 1907 to 1908

The Jim Crow Timeline 1909 to 1911

Jun 30, 1909
Johnson Victorious
World Heavyweight Champion Jack Johnson faces an Italian-American boxer named Antonio Rossiliano, or “Tony Ross,” in Pittsburgh. Although Johnson knocks Ross down in the first round, breaking the fighter’s nose in the process, he allows the bout to continue for a full six rounds in order to give patrons an exciting show. O’Brien deliberately falls to the mat in the last round in order to avoid a punch, sealing yet another victory for Johnson.
Sep 9, 1909
Johnson Kaufmann Match
In Colma, California, world heavyweight champion Jack Johnson faces “Big” Al Kaufmann. Kaufmann, one of the largest and most experienced of Johnson’s opponents, fails to land more than a few punches throughout the fight. Despite a consensus among those in attendance that the victory belongs to Johnson, the referee refuses to declare a winner. The match is ruled a draw. Continue reading The Jim Crow Timeline 1909 to 1911

The Jim Crow Timeline 1915 to 1925

Mar 1915
Johnson Defends
Jack Johnson defends his heavyweight title while in exile from the United States due to pending charges related to his sexual relationship with a white woman. He loses to his white opponent, Kansas-born Jess Willard. Black boxers will be excluded from title bouts against whites for the next 22 years.
Nov 14, 1915
Washington Dies
Booker T. Washington dies at the age of 59 in his home in Tuskegee, Alabama.
1917
Du Bois Marches
In New York City, W. E. B. Du Bois leads a silent march in protest of Jim Crow laws and lynching crimes.
1918
Virginia Separates Prisons
A Virginia law requires penitentiaries to separate black and white prisoners.
1919
Texas Separates Libraries
A Texas law requires public libraries to maintain separate branches for blacks. Continue reading The Jim Crow Timeline 1915 to 1925

The Jim Crow Timeline 1926 to 1935

1926
Virginia Restricts Public Places
A Virginia law requires public halls, movie theaters, opera houses, and all other places of public entertainment to separate white patrons from black patrons.
1927
Arizona Sets Number
The Arizona legislature requires each district to vote on whether to segregate each high school in which the number of registered black students reaches 25.
1928
Kentucky Restricts Hospitals
A Kentucky law requires white and black patients to be housed in separate hospital facilities.
1930
Oregon Renews Laws
Oregon renews an anti-miscegenation statute first passed in 1866. The law prohibits any white person from marrying or residing with someone of another race.
1932
Tennessee Felonizes
In Tennessee, miscegenation is declared a felony. In addition, the legislature votes to require high schools to segregate students by race. Continue reading The Jim Crow Timeline 1926 to 1935