Missouri Restricts Marriage
A Missouri law states, “No person having one-eighth part or more of Negro blood shall be permitted to marry any white person.” 5 The statute will be renewed in 1909, 1929, and 1949.
South Carolina Restricts Marriage
A South Carolina law states, “Marriage between a white person and an Indian, Negro, mulatto, mestizo, or half-breed shall be null and void.” In 1895, the legislature will amend the state constitution to reflect this statute.
Booker T. Washington returns to his alma mater, the Hampton Institute, in order to teach and mentor students.
Mississippi Voids Mixed Marriage
The Mississippi legislature revises the state code to declare that any marriage between a white person and an African-American is “incestuous and void.” Continue reading The Jim Crow Timeline 1879 to 1885
Utah Restricts Marriage
Utah enacts a miscegenation law that prohibits any white person from marrying someone of another race. The statute will be renewed in 1907, 1933, and 1953.
Du Bois At Harvard
W. E. B. Du Bois completes his coursework at Fisk College, graduating at top of his class. With the aid of generous scholarships, he is able to continue his education at Harvard University. During his seven-year stint at the prestigious institution, Du Bois will earn a B.A. in Philosophy and an M.A. in History and will become the university’s first African-American student to receive a Ph.D.
Texas Restricts Transportation
The Texas legislature repeals the 1871 statute that barred segregation on public transportation. Railroad companies are now required to maintain separate coaches for black passengers.
During the 1890s, at least 1,132 blacks are lynched or burned alive in the United States.7
Between 1890 and 1906, every southern state passes some sort of statute meant to prevent blacks from registering to vote. Most new elector requirements, such as the poll tax, literacy tests, and the “grandfather clause,” appear colorblind, but in practice, function to eliminate the black vote altogether.
Louisiana Restricts Railroads
A Louisiana law requires railroad companies to provide separate but equal accommodations for black passengers. Continue reading The Jim Crow Timeline 1888 to 1899
Georgia Restricts Schools
Georgia bars black and white children from attending the same schools. Any teacher who instructs black and white students in the same classroom forfeits all pay. The law and the penalties associated with it will be renewed in 1926, 1933, and 1945.
South Carolina Constitution Amended
The South Carolina Constitution is amended to read, “Separate schools shall be provided for children of the white and colored races, and no child of either race shall ever be permitted to attend a school for children of the other race.” In addition, Article 6 of Section 6 is rewritten to assert that each county in which a lynching occurs may be subject to a fine of $2,000 per death. Such a measure reveals that this type of murder is common throughout the state. Similar laws will be passed in 1908 and again in 1932.8
Du Bois Harvard Ph.D.
W. E. B. Du Bois receives a Ph.D. in History from Harvard University. He is the first African-American student to earn this degree from the prestigious institution. In the following year, Dr. Du Bois will publish his doctoral dissertation, “The Suppression of the African Slave Trade. Continue reading The Jim Crow Timeline 1895 to 1900
North Carolina Restricts Libraries
A North Carolina law requires state librarians to maintain separate facilities for the use of black patrons.
Alabama Restricts Marriage
The Alabama Constitution is amended to block the passage of any law authorizing or legalizing interracial marriage.
Up From Slavery
Booker T. Washington publishes Up From Slavery, his best-selling autobiography.
Jul 16, 1901
Washington Meets Roosevelt
Booker T. Washington dines with President Theodore Roosevelt at the White House. Washington takes the opportunity to consult the President about several of his political appointments in the South.
Virginia Constitution Restricts Schools
The Virginia constitution is amended to mandate school segregation. Continue reading The Jim Crow Timeline 1901 to 1905
Oklahoma Constitution Requires School Oversight
The Oklahoma Constitution is amended to require the state legislature to oversee the creation of separate schools for “colored children.” The term “colored,” the amendment states, “shall be construed to mean children of African descent who possess any quantum of negro blood, and the term ‘white’ shall include all other persons.”11
Texas Restricts Street Cars
A Texas law requires streetcar companies to designate separate seating areas for black riders. A passenger refusing to sit in the appropriate area must pay a fine of up to $25. That is $622.34 in 2017 dollars.
Florida Restricts Railroads
Florida railroad companies must provide separate waiting rooms and ticket windows for black patrons at all stations. In addition, railway cars must be clearly marked “For White” or “For Colored.” Those companies that refuse to comply may be fined up to $5,000.
Louisiana Increases Penalties
The Louisiana legislature revises an anti-miscegenation law first passed in 1894. The new penalty for interracial marriage is imprisonment for up to one year with hard labor. The statute will be renewed in 1910, 1932, 1951, and 1952. The legislature also votes to bar whites and blacks from buying or consuming alcohol on the same premises. Continue reading The Jim Crow Timeline 1907 to 1908
Jun 30, 1909
World Heavyweight Champion Jack Johnson faces an Italian-American boxer named Antonio Rossiliano, or “Tony Ross,” in Pittsburgh. Although Johnson knocks Ross down in the first round, breaking the fighter’s nose in the process, he allows the bout to continue for a full six rounds in order to give patrons an exciting show. O’Brien deliberately falls to the mat in the last round in order to avoid a punch, sealing yet another victory for Johnson.
Sep 9, 1909
Johnson Kaufmann Match
In Colma, California, world heavyweight champion Jack Johnson faces “Big” Al Kaufmann. Kaufmann, one of the largest and most experienced of Johnson’s opponents, fails to land more than a few punches throughout the fight. Despite a consensus among those in attendance that the victory belongs to Johnson, the referee refuses to declare a winner. The match is ruled a draw. Continue reading The Jim Crow Timeline 1909 to 1911
Jack Johnson defends his heavyweight title while in exile from the United States due to pending charges related to his sexual relationship with a white woman. He loses to his white opponent, Kansas-born Jess Willard. Black boxers will be excluded from title bouts against whites for the next 22 years.
Nov 14, 1915
Booker T. Washington dies at the age of 59 in his home in Tuskegee, Alabama.
Du Bois Marches
In New York City, W. E. B. Du Bois leads a silent march in protest of Jim Crow laws and lynching crimes.
Virginia Separates Prisons
A Virginia law requires penitentiaries to separate black and white prisoners.
Texas Separates Libraries
A Texas law requires public libraries to maintain separate branches for blacks. Continue reading The Jim Crow Timeline 1915 to 1925
Virginia Restricts Public Places
A Virginia law requires public halls, movie theaters, opera houses, and all other places of public entertainment to separate white patrons from black patrons.
Arizona Sets Number
The Arizona legislature requires each district to vote on whether to segregate each high school in which the number of registered black students reaches 25.
Kentucky Restricts Hospitals
A Kentucky law requires white and black patients to be housed in separate hospital facilities.
Oregon Renews Laws
Oregon renews an anti-miscegenation statute first passed in 1866. The law prohibits any white person from marrying or residing with someone of another race.
In Tennessee, miscegenation is declared a felony. In addition, the legislature votes to require high schools to segregate students by race. Continue reading The Jim Crow Timeline 1926 to 1935
South Carolina Restricts Bus Drivers
A South Carolina law requires school bus drivers to be of the same race as the children they transport.
Virginia Separates Riders
A Virginia law requires all passenger vehicles to separate white riders from black riders. In addition, separate waiting rooms for black patrons must be maintained at bus stations and train depots.
The University Of Missouri School Of Law refuses to admit Lloyd Lionel Gaines, a black college graduate, on account of his race. The state offers Gaines a scholarship to attend a school outside Missouri, but he refuses the funding and files a lawsuit. Although he loses his case, the NAACP will appeal to the Supreme Court two years later.
Jun 22, 1937
Joe Louis Wins
Boxer Joe Louis defeats the reigning heavyweight champion Jimmy Braddock to become the first black athlete to hold the world title since Jack Johnson. Continue reading The Jim Crow Timeline 1935 to 1945
Alabama Literacy Law
The Alabama Constitution is amended to state new voting qualifications; electors must demonstrate literacy, must identify and explain any article of the U.S. Constitution, and must prove that they have been employed during the year prior to registration.
Jun 9, 1946
Jack Johnson Dies
Former world heavyweight champion Jack Johnson dies in a car accident near Raleigh, North Carolina.
Arkansas Separates Places
The Arkansas state legislature passes several statutes that mandate segregation at all polling places, in prisons, and on buses and trains.
North Carolina Restricts Cemeteries
A North Carolina law requires state cemeteries to segregate burial plots by race. Continue reading The Jim Crow Timeline 1945 to 1956